Progettazione, by Suzanne Axelsson & Debi Keyte-Hartland

We have been inspired by through a recent question about progettazione posed on the Facebook Page here https://www.facebook.com/groups/ReggioEmiliaApproach/ about progettazione that Suzanne curates.  We have decided to collaborate together on a piece that explores what for each of us progettazione means and looks like.

For Debi, progettazione is best described as a transdisciplinary, flexible and open approach to working with children’s hypothesises and thinking whereby their ideas are subject to moderation, elaboration and transformation as thinking develops as part of a learning group. (For more on Learning groups see here)  It is a way of working that goes beyond the completion of a topic or theme set by the adult in which certain concepts are covered through teaching to one that is more akin to a research approach where the educator is a co-researcher alongside the children exploring how young children learn both individually and as part of a group.

For Suzanne, progettazione is an approach where children and teachers are learning, they are collaborators, researchers and teaching each other. The educators are observing the children at a level that is informing them about how they are learning as well as what fascinates them within the project.  It is a complex multi-layered learning situation for all concerned where the educators document the children’s knowledge about the project, as well as their own learning styles and development and analyse this information to improve themselves as educators.  There is a mutual respect between children and educators and the project is driven by the teachers and children together.

For Debi, the children are not guided to cover a range of topics or themes but rather learning situations are created that generate a context for discussion, expression and the contesting of ideas in many modalities and ‘languages’ about the world. Children learn through being offered these generative contexts and provocations that enable children to discover learning for themselves. Progettazione therefore promotes educator development, the co-construction of knowledge as part of a learning group and should be in relationship with the children’s families. In this way, families are invited to learn about the group as the progettazione progresses and not just their individual child at the end.

Another good descriptor about progettazione can be found here at: https://www.reggioaustralia.org.au/component/content/article/65

And look here for more information on the general guiding principles of the Reggio Emilia schools. http://www.sightlines-initiative.com/in-dialogue-with-reggio-emilia.html

“If we believe that children possess their own theories, interpretations and questions, and that they are co-protagonists in their knowledge-building processes, then the most important verb in educational practice is no longer to talk, to explain, to transmit, but to listen.” 

Carlina Rinaldi (1998)

Carlina Rinaldi in the quote featured above speaks about how our image of the child affects how we teach. If we see them as empty vessels then our practice is to fill them up with facts and knowledge of our own. However if we believe that children are capable of thinking, of making hypotheses and interpretation and posing questions of their own then rather than fill up the child or transmit knowledge to them, we instead listen to them and most importantly, act upon what they say, to make a choice about what happens next by considering the multiple perspectives shared in the group.

Suzanne also reminds us that we have to agree as team of educators working together what these tricky words such as progettazione, project, topic and theme mean to each other.

“We have had many dialogues about themes and projects and what exactly these words mean for us, and how we can use them in a larger circle of educators around the world. After all this world of ours is shrinking in the sense that we can collaborate online… this means we need to have an understanding of each other. For example the word kindergarten means something quite different when I am in Jenin and Germany from when I have been in Canada and USA – so I find when starting with progettazione we also have to come to some kind of agreement on the language of the progettazione so that we have a common understanding, otherwise I think it is easy to walk away from a meeting thinking we are all in an agreement about where the project is starting from and what direction it will initially take… to discover that all the educators take completely different directions from each other.”

Progettazione therefore we could say in an approach that:

  • is co-lead by children and educators working together
  • is a flexible and open approach that is open to modification and multiple points of view
  • is a form of professional development for teachers (a research approach)
  • happens as part of a learning group collaborating together
  • where observation is used to understand the learning processes of the children as well as well as the construction of knowledge within the learning group
  • involves family engagement during the process of the progettazione
  • involves many languages of expression, to discuss and hypothesise ideas and thoughts
  • requires agreement amongst teams of educators  upon what the term means to them

For Suzanne, an example of progettazione was when she worked at a bilingual school that had at its heart a research question about language…… since they were profiling in language, to understand how children acquired and used language(s) was very important. For example how much did the children know, how did they communicate, how were they learning language and how were non-verbal children communicating, which language was the strongest, how do children learn a second or third or fourth language? She had a ”project” with the children where each of the four groups were exploring different things that each group had shown an interest in… the group she worked most closely with at the time was exploring space, which turned into an exploration of colour and size.  But it was through this space exploration that she observed the children’s language and how they communicated their ideas.  They also had regular meetings analysing their notes, films, photos etc where they not only discussed how the projects could move forward in the sense of what the children were interested in… but also what they were learning about the children’s language and how this information could enable them to be better teachers.

For Debi, who works in the Reggio Emilia tradition of a pedagogista (but also with an arts background) an example of progettazione began with children making observations of the daytime sky.  There was a certainty that the moon was in the sky at night and the sun was only in the sky during the day.  One day, the moon appeared in the sky during the daytime which provided an occasion to challenge this certainty.  What began as discussions about the description of the sun and the moon turned into a context for generating ideas about why this might happen.  Following this event, the learning group (of about 11, 3-4 year olds) seemed to be talking more about the relationship between the sun and the moon, rather than as two separate and isolated phenomena.  They talked about the power, that was held inside the sun and moon and power that emerged between the two.  What appeared to be descriptors about power were maybe, as educators hypothesised using collected traces of documentation to analyse were the genesis of thinking about gravity and energy.  It was during these year long explorations of the relationship between the sun and the moon that educators also researched how playful approaches to using digital media could be used in ways for children to co-construct and express ideas of their own thinking.

Progettazione we could then say is an approach to children’s learning, about educators learning about learning and about making that learning visible for analysis, for acting upon and deciding what to do next.  A final stage is the publication of summative documentation that  makes visible the co-research of the adults and the children.  Progettazione cannot happen without what Carlina Rinaldi calls the “Pedagogy of Listening” and does not really occur when children are working in isolation of each other.  It forms in the relationship and interaction of others; other children, other educators, other families and the community.

“Listening to children’s theories enhances the possibility of discovering how children think and how they both question and develop a relationship with reality. This possibility is magnified when it occurs within a group context that allows for the experience of others to be shared and debated.”

https://www.reggioaustralia.org.au/component/content/article/59

Thank you for reading,

Suzanne Axelsson & Debi Keyte-Hartland

Suzanne Axelsson blogs at interactionimagination.blogspot.co.uk

Debi Keyte-Hartland’s blog can be found at debikeytehartland.me

Other links
https://tecribresearch.wordpress.com/2014/01/28/progettazione-reggio-inspired-teaching-in-dialogue-with-the-learning-processes-of-children/

Projects and Progettazione: An alternative to the trashy crafty tat of Christmas!

The construction of learning projects with young children is an area I have been interested in since first visiting the pre-schools of Reggio Emilia several years ago.  At the moment with the advent of Christmas, educational (???) blogs are abundant with festive craft projects for children including fablon snowmen, cotton spool christmas trees and glittery paper stockings.   For me project working offers an alternative to what I call the trashy tat of early years craft fodder!  Harsh I know, but working with projects reveals and illuminates just what young children can do when not tricked to the table of trash.

Working in this way (sometimes known as the project approach) enables the possibility for groups of children to work together exchanging ideas, opinions and constructing learning as a group facilitated by educators whom themselves are part of the group, co-constructing knowledge alongside of the children.  They are a powerful pedagogic approach that encourage the space for deep exploration of a theory or concept and the expression and realisation of ideas of children working as a collaborative group.  They challenge the idea of the learning environment as simply an arena of self chosen, self resourced and accessible materials and resources for children to choose from and provide an alternative to the make and take art and craft activity.

Projects or progettazione(as they are called in Reggio Emilia) are offered to the children and often invite engagement of families.  They are used as an opportunity to share the project and raise the profile of what is possible in early childhood education within the wider community of the school/setting.

Sharing project work in Reggio Emilia - exciting and scary!

A project far from being something that is could instead be considered as something we do, a way of working, and a pedagogical approach.  It is not something that is delivered to the children in a single lesson (with an identified objective) or given to the children over a short period of time in chunks of a topic web but rather could be seen as a space where both knowledge itself as well as the process of the project are considered as emergent and elaborative where learning is built over time.  Projects can be both short and long but will have this pattern of knowledge becoming more complex and more elaborate over time.

Engaging Families in Project Work

A challenge in the beginning of any project is how to involve families as participants in the process of the project formation.  On a recent study exchange to visit pre-schools in Stockholm I became increasingly aware of how projects were chosen based on a criteria  not only of interest to the children but also in the ability of the proposed project for family participation.  There the idea of the summer assignment or summer memory was as a UK teacher reflected upon, an important way for the school/setting/educator to establish a mutual relationship with the families that had at its heart an idea about engaging in and constructing the project together.  It was often a simple invite, to bring something in related to the project concept, for example, something that made a sound (for a project about sound) or something found in nature (for a project about the natural world) but the objects and materials gathered from families were displayed with care in a prominent place, their value clearly communicated and then worked with and upon by the children with the resulting documentation shared back.

Workshops can also be part of the project cycle that sees the participation of parents using the materials that the children are simultaneously exploring and the ideas being formed within the project.  At one of the settings I work at, they recently held a wonderful parent meeting where educators facilitated a workshop for parents to play with and invent new tints of colours (an aspect of their project about transformation).  It was an opportunity for families to involve themselves in the work and the emerging ideas of the children.

Networks and Professional Development

Projects hold the possibility for professional development especially when entered into as a group of schools/settings working together.  The project networks of teachers in Stockholm involved other interested parties from the wider context, for example people in the universities with an interest in the language or material being investigated in the project.  Before launching head long into any project there should be a pre-project phase.  This could be described as a time for finding out about the thematic concepts of the project for ourselves as educators from many different perspectives (not just education), a time of reading and research and of developing the vocabulary and language that will help us to see how the children might construct their knowledge. This pre-project phase is also a time of finding out from the children about their thoughts and first ideas.

Reading around the subject of the project is incredibly important.  In a recent project about photography, the reading from philosophical sources raised issues about the lack of plasticity of photography as a medium of expression and the potential that photography held to create images that were created without intention at all. Reading also helped us to understand the differences between an image and a picture.  This was new knowledge and helped the educator team to re-frame the project and alert us to the possibility of oversimplification of techniques and the creation of unintentional images.

Project Pointers

Here are some brief pointers taken from my 2011 journal in thinking about projects with young children.

  • Documentation should be used to reflect back and analyse the intent with children.  Documentation should not be hidden but used for reflection and discussion with children and as a tool for constructing further active contexts for dialogue.
  • Find a way and a time to decide with children where and how we’ll spend our time together.  Project work requires being part of a group and this needs organising.
  • Consider how a summer assignment/memory could act as a starting point for a project and make it visible and possible for children to continue working with the artefacts collected.  Share this documentation with families.
  • Develop parent workshops to work with the materials of the children, their ideas and their theories.
  • Consider what you want to find out as part of the project, use this as a basis for for your research questions.  A project is akin to a research methodology.
  • Dialogue with families should infect the direction of the project and not just be a one way feedback to families.
  • Alert children to the connection between their ideas, thinking and use of materials in a group context (contagion and borrowing of others competencies).  We must directly activate these important opportunities for reflection and noticing what each other does and how it connects.
  • Make ongoing project work visible – if it is visible we can use it as a visual aid for dialogue and discussion with families and children.
  • Observational work and drawing – it is not a way of making beautiful paintings or drawings but as a way of constructing meaning and looking closely at something.  In projects, drawing is an important technique for playing with and communicating ideas.

It would be really good if people reading this blog could add their ‘project pointers’ and help grow this list of things to think about.  I find it fascinating that people from all over the world are reading and sharing my little blog. We have the opportunity to create a  global multiple perspective on working with projects with children.  This is my English slant on it, so what do projects feel like and look like in Australia, America, Peru or Spain…? – or even in other parts of the UK?