The One Hundred Languages of Children

The One Hundred Languages of Children

© 2016 Madeley Nursery School, UK
© 2016 Madeley Nursery School, UK

“The One Hundred Languages is a metaphor for the extraordinary potentials of children, their knowledge-building and creative processes, the myriad forms with which life is manifested and knowledge is constructed. The hundred languages are understood as having the potential to be transformed and multiplied in the cooperation and interaction between the languages, among the children, and between children and adults.”  

Carlina Rinaldi (2013) Re-Imagining Childhood

I have been thinking about and re-visiting my thoughts about The One Hundred Languages poem and what Loris Malaguzzi meant by it, and how it is interpreted in both the Reggio context and in contexts outside of Reggio Emilia.  For Carlina Rinaldi (2013) in Re-Imagining Childhood she says the one hundred languages are transformable and that they are multiplied in the interaction between the languages, children, and between children and adults.

I am interested in what is meant by the interaction between the languages, and between the protagonists of adults and children and what it produces.   So often this metaphor is only used as the individual ways, or preferences in which children express and construct knowledge as a dancer, or through clay, or by writing, or as a scientist.  I think it is one of many interpretations, on a continuum of meaning-making.  This interpretation supposes that children have access to one hundred, but that they choose only one of the hundred as a way of communicating and learning about the world. The poem suggests that it is school who steals the ninety-nine.

I am wondering about the spaces that exist in-between the languages, as children go from one language to another to another – transforming the thinking.  A group of children from Madeley Nursery School in the UK have this year been wondering about the sounds of things that grow.  The idea was born as they listened to seeds jiggling about in a packet and comparing those to other seed sounds.  The work itself transformed for one group, to become about the relationship between two trees and of their relationship to the children.  They listened closely with intent to the seeds and the trees themselves, as the educators listened too with intent to the ideas and theories of the children.  What may have at first appeared as a whimsical and playful idea about trees in communication linked closely to ideas of fungi and tree roots collaborating as they pass nutrients and more to each other, under the floor of the forest.  This represents one language moving to another, from one of listening physically to the tree, with pipes and tubes, to expressing with voice and gesture.  It is the space in-between that transforms the learning into expression.

© 2016 Madeley Nursery School, UK
© 2016 Madeley Nursery School, UK

Later in the year, as ideas evolved the small group of children came together to gift the tree with a song.  The song was collaborative, negotiated and composed interweaving many cultural and symbolic meanings together with known nursery rhymes.   The song existed as a song to be sung and as a written document, it was transformed into a set of symbolic drawings representing the many elements of the song and was transformed again from 2D to 3D clay compositional signs that were transformed again with colour.  The clay signs were then given to the tree, together with parents as part of a celebratory coming together.

© 2016 Madeley Nursery School, UK
© 2016 Madeley Nursery School, UK

I wonder how these transformations from one language to another helped in the transformation of thinking.  Applying the metaphor of a rhizome Deleuze and Guattari (1987) in A thousand plateaus suggest that thinking is multidirectional, holds no beginning or end, and has many possibilities of pathways (tubers).  Olsson (2009) in Movement and experimentation in young children’s learning suggests that thought is provoked when encountered by something unfamiliar.  In moving between languages we can create contexts of the unexpected, so that thought is in a state of continual movement and evolvement.  The song that was sung became an unexpected set of signs in which new stories emerged about its constituent parts.  The transformation from written sign into clay brought another unexpected encounter as 2D signs were made 3D with new possibilities for change and evolvement into more complex signs and symbols that were gifted and left to remain on the tree itself.  Now, the tree was gifted, it formed a new meaning that contained ideas about reciprocity and symbolism for both children, educators and parents.  Its meaning was neither closed or complete as ideas about its existence and transformation continued to provoke new thoughts in the audience it ‘spoke’ to.

According to Deleuze and Guttari (1987) assemblages are structures, metaphoric in content and form that are created through connections and relationships between interactions, materials and artefacts including the cultural and community context, time and place.  We could call the gifted tree an assemblage of an encounter between tree, children, place, and materials capable of expression and meaning-making (languages).

Finally, Rinalidi (2013) reminds us that, “It is the responsibility of the infant-toddler centre and the preschool to give value and equal dignity to all the verbal and non-verbal languages.”  In this way we must create multiple opportunities for all languages capable of both meaning-making and expression in our work with children.  It leaves us  the challenge not just to recognise the One Hundred Languages but to provoke them too, and thus enable the unexpected encounter that gives rise to the birth of new thinking in the continuum and evolvement of learning.

Advertisements

Journeys into Learning: Rhizomes and Reggio Emilia

Rhizomes and Reggio Emilia

IMG_3513
A sketch of some fabric found in the markets of Dakar that represents visually my idea of learning.

Many of you who read my blog will have noticed how I refer to the rhizome as a pattern in which I see learning happening in both children and adults.  (Deleuze and Guttarri).  It is akin to how the internet works – a way of jumping and landing on different pads or nodules before leaping off to another that connects.  The spaces inbetween are not separators of knowledge but rather nutrient rich connectors of learning that for me signify the act of the journey of learning.  I like the metaphor of the rhizome because it is in movement in many directions with no specific entry or exit points, or particular progressive pathways and is akin to Loris Malaguzzi’s metaphor of learning being like a tangled bowl of spaghetti.

My journey into the philosophy of Loris Malaguzzi and the pre-schools in Reggio Emilia began 15 years ago. As an artist working in education undertaking residences I first came across the work of the Pre-Schools of Reggio Emilia as an exhibition.  I never got to the exhibition that first time, I just had the leaflet…I just didn’t know how important it was going to be for me.  I began by reading, from the source…for me it was all about the library, real bookshops at the time and not blogs, Pinterest or Facebook back then!  Reading from the source is so important, it is easy to become lost in interpretations of an approach to learn that is so context based to the city of Reggio Emilia and Italian culture.  So my advice is to head to the Reggio Children website and find your countries official Reggio Children International Network Member organisation, which is NAREA in the US or Sightlines Initiative in the UK, others include Red Solare, The Reggio Children Institute, REANZ and purchase books published by Reggio Children and books recommended by them.  It is easy to get lost online…

sightlines-w200But then again, getting lost is kind of fun and can lead to the unexpected finds.  I prefer to head out with tools of orientation.  At Sightlines Initiative we talk about ‘Tools and Compasses’ that enable us to go on a journey of discovery, of research but without getting lost in the wilderness.  These are found below and reprinted from ReFocus Journal 6

Values and characteristics in developing environments of enquiry : Tools and CompassesUnknown

Values & principles

  • Education is the creative process of exchange, relationship and understanding of oneself, others and the world.
  • Things, people and experiences … The educative environment looks for skills to be in relationship and explore relationship. Dialogue is of absolute importance in its everyday practice.
  • The awareness of constant possibility is a quality not a limitation. Knowledge is always open to change.
  • ‘Listening and exchange’ is the dominant idea in pedagogical practice, and in the learners’ experience. The practice of listening, with evaluation and synthesis, enables educators to interpret children’s competencies and questions, and to construct with them suitable learning experiences.Images & understandings
  • Children are rich in curiosity and competence and potential. They are innately sociable and seek exchanges.
  • The desire and predisposition to be curious, to enquire, to make hypotheses, to interpret and make sense of our experiences, to be in relationship, are basic human characteristics.
  • Our learning spaces need to be imbued with the characteristics of curiosity and sociability.Qualities & tools
  • Time – space – attention: the three basic tools, creating the foundation of the educative experience. They are the responsibility of educators in collaboration with children and their families.
  • Dialogue is a tool as well as a value. Regular and detailed reflection processes are vital in the co-construction of sociable learning journeys.
  • Pedagogical documentation is a vital tool in making learning visible for educators, children and families.
  • The schoolspace needs to be a studio for exploration, examination and exchange. It can be a place where we bring the tools of all our senses to the business of learning, across all the perceptual modes and expressive languages.

These values and characteristics keep close to me, as a guide for all that I do and approach.  They are not a set of rules, or closed actions, but rather a set of thoughts for not getting lost.  They came out of discussion and many years of thinking about what happens in Reggio Emilia and in how we construct together our own creative and reflective pedagogic practice here in the UK.  Reggio is often referred to asa mirror, not to initiate or copy but to use to reflect on our own contexts.  

I share these thoughts in the spirit of encounter and exchange.  For me these two important words are framing my year of 2015 – to encounter new perspectives and to be IN exchange with as many a possible.  Facebook, blogs and Twitter make that all so much easier now.  A wonderful blog and connected post to this is a recent connection made with Diane Kashin.  This blog is inspired by her own on the same subject, so go see that too, comment on them, and contemplate your own journey and tools and compasses.  I attach an image of a quote she shared here that encapsulates the idea of journeying with others.

malaguzzi-quote-rive

For further information please feel free to contact me here or through Sightlines Initiative.